As the demand sustains, there will be some pressure on the pricing side and if the government has to really give support on the MSP front, what sort of pricing should they offer and what sort of market realisation should they form for the yield?
The output is again going to be equally strong on the productivity side. So that one issue remains, otherwise, we do not expect anything adverse in the rural sector.
Construction and railways are more dependent on government spending happening and post- election, and definitely pre-election, there is a stagnancy on account of the spend levels and that can have some impact on demand.
But going forward, we expect in four-five years, the India story will remain intact on the infra side as well. Your breakup of the Rs crore -- how much has come from practice and how much from non-agri business?
Do you expect a sizable recovery in the construction business? Just like your tractor business came back in FY18, can your construction business come back in FY19? If you look at the numbers on the four-year basis, construction saw the highest growth even in FY We expect the momentum should continue and it can actually give you a positive surprise.
It can actually give you a very positive surprise. What does Escorts stay in the railways business? It is a business where we know the competitive intensity is only going to increase. What stops you from letting us divest that business?
One of the key reasons is we have been into the railway business for last 50 years and definitely the growth in the railway demand has started coming in only in last three-four years. Prior to that, for five-six years, we had seen actually hardly any ARPU. Now with the financial closure happening on various capex programme for railways, the kind of roadmap which we have got from the railway ministry is very strong. We expect this is one segment where we can actually also grow so not only organically but also inorganically through expanding our product portfolio.
So our aim is to take this business to a sizable level of Rs crore plus. The margins in business should continue to remain the highest for us and that is the momentum we see happening going forward too.
As of now, there is not much dependence on Escorts. We will continue to remain the lowest player on export front. So, there is lot of potential there because we have been investing a lot on developing of product portfolio for the international market. I feel in next three-four years, the number of tractors exported should be up to 8, to 10, per annum which will become a sizable business where we can bank upon.
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India visit aimed at solidifying friendship: My Saved Articles Sign in Sign up. Find this comment offensive? This will alert our moderators to take action Name Reason for reporting: Foul language Slanderous Inciting hatred against a certain community Others. Finally, since both the prenyl lipid and the PBR are permanent, there is strong rationale for additional posttranslational modifications that can confer more dynamic modulation.
Anouk Stigter a b , Herbert Waldmann a b , in The Enzymes , The Ras superfamily of small guanosine triphosphatases small GTPases comprises more than different proteins that belong to the class of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins G Proteins .
Based on variations in structure, post-translational modifications and interactions with effector and regulator proteins, the Ras superfamily GTPases function as sophisticated modulators of a complex and diverse range of cellular processes  and play critical roles in various biological processes [3—5]. Based on sequence and similarity, the Ras superfamily can be divided into five major classes: The most common lipid modifications are N -myristoylation, S -palmitoylation, S -farnesylation, and S -geranylgeranylation.
Farnesyl and geranylgeranyl groups are introduced by prenyl transferases PTases. FTase adds the carbon farnesyl isoprenoid to a C -terminal cysteine, whereas both GGTase I and RabGGTase add the carbon geranylgeranyl, although with different substrate specificity.
Geranylgeranylation occurs when the CAAX sequence ends in leucine or phenylalanine, whereas farnesylation takes place in all other cases . RabGGTase acts specifically on Rab proteins. The Rab proteins are involved in vesicular transport within the cell, with many of the proteins localized in specific compartments of the secretory and endocytic pathways.
Geranygeranylated Rab GTPases are then able to associate tightly with the plasma membrane [11,12]. The subfamily of Ras GTPases controls numerous signaling cascades, including the MAP-kinase pathway that controls cell growth, differentiation, and survival.
Many tumors harbor mutated Ras GTPases that are constitutively active . Therefore, inhibition of Ras GTPase activity represents an attractive anticancer strategy. Since Ras GTPases require posttranslational isoprenylation for correct membrane association and function, the lipidation step has been targeted for drug discovery.
Several strategies summarized in Figure 8. One option is the depletion of substrates for the prenylation reaction, either farnesylpyrophosphate FPP or geranylgeranylpyrophosphate GGPP. These substrates are both products of the mevalonate or the deoxyxylulosephosphate isoprenoid biosynthesis pathways . Small molecule intervention, using statins to inhibit HMG-CoA reductase or employing bisphosphonates to inhibit FPP synthase, result in depletion of the prenyl donor and hence in inhibition of posttranslational prenylation.
Such a strategy, however, leads to the inhibition of all prenylation reactions as well as to blockage of formation of other secondary products of the mevalonate pathway such as terpenoids and hormones . A more attractive strategy would be the selective inhibition of the PTases. For this reason, numerous inhibitors of FTase [16,17] and GGTase I  have been developed and have even reached clinical trials [19—21]. However, clinical results have not matched the initial promise of these enzymes as interesting targets for cancer treatment, at least not using this strategy.
This is the case for example for several farnesyl transferase inhibitors FTIs , which showed poor success in clinical trials. However, the observation that some FTIs were effective in tumor cell lines with no mutations in Ras, led to the insight that these inhibitors were also targeting the related RabGGTase . These results suggested that lipidation of Rab proteins could represent a new anticancer drug target and opened a new area of research.
In contrast to Ras GTPases, which are involved in cellular growth and differentiation, Rab GTPases are key players in the regulation of eukaryotic intracellular trafficking events such as the formation, motility, targeting, and docking of vesicles  and an obvious link with proliferation or cell death is lacking. Nevertheless, the initial hypothesis could be further confirmed experimentally. Chemical genetics studies with interfering RNA or inhibitors confirmed that the inhibition of RabGGTase leads to p53 independent apoptosis in tumor cell lines .
In addition, the overexpression of RabGGTase and its substrates, such as Rab5a, Rab7, and Rab25, has been detected in several cancer types [24,25]. These results validated the prenylation of RabGGTase as a promising anticancer target.
For these reasons, there is an increasing interest in the development of selective inhibitors of RabGGTase. Compounds able to specifically inhibit this enzyme would be invaluable tools for clarifying the role of Rab GTPases in biological processes as well as being potential start points for the development of antitumor agents.
Although some efforts have been undertaken, until recently the development of selective RabGGTase inhibitors has lagged behind the development of other transferase inhibitors.
The close similarity of the active sites of the PTases makes development of selective RabGGTase inhibitors a challenge. In addition, RabGGTase recognizes protein substrates indirectly, which results in relaxed specificity . However, during the course of the last decade the development of selective RabGGTase inhibitors has been approached, resulting in several RabGGTase inhibitors with interesting selectivity profiles.
The inhibitors range from GGPP mimics to phosphonocarboxylates and peptide-based and small molecule inhibitors. In this chapter, an overview of RabGGTase inhibitor development will be given and their biological evaluation will be discussed. Robbie Loewith, in The Enzymes , Rapid growth requires robust protein synthesis. To support such robust protein synthesis, rapidly growing yeast cells need to produce incredible numbers of ribosomes and tRNAs which themselves require accessory factors aka ribosome biogenesis or RiBi factors for their processing and assembly.
As this consumes an enormous amount of energy, yeast cells have developed tight control mechanisms to regulate and coordinate the expression of these genes [56, 57].
As illustrated in Figure 9. Rapamycin does not appear to alter the number of active genes within the rDNA repeats but rather decreases the association of RNA Pol I with active genes .
These transcription factors appear to be repressors that function by recruiting the RPD3 histone deacetylase complex to silence the expression of adjacent genes [61, 64—67].
Thus, it is very likely that the regulation of RiBi genes by SCH9 observed previously is mediated by these transcription factors. SFP1 is a putative transcription factor with a split zinc-finger at its carboxyl terminus. These studies support previous reports  that beyond regulating the transcription of genes encoding RiBi factors, TORC1 also plays a much more direct since exposure to rapamycin was for only a limited time—presumably before transcriptional effects become manifest role in ribosome biogenesis.
FHL1 binding to RP promoters appears to be constitutive and in some cases is facilitated by HMO1, a high-mobility group protein and RAP1, an essential protein with pleiotropic functions . Binding to these coregulators is mediated by their TORC1-dependent phosphorylation.
How TORC1 regulates these phosphorylation events is not known. When active, these promoters typically are bound by the NuA4 histone acetyltransferase complex; when inactive, by the RPD3 histone deacetylase complex [65, 75, 76]. Curiously, versions of MAF1 in which these seven residues have been replaced with either alanine or glutamate are still able to complement a MAF1 deletion.
Yeast cells commit to a new round of cell division only after attaining a critical cell size, which varies according to growth conditions . How yeast cells couple environmental cues to cell growth and cell cycle is a fascinating yet poorly defined process.
To tackle this problem on a broad level the Tyers group performed a large-scale screen in yeast to identify mutants that appeared to be involved in size control. Amazingly, the two smallest mutants recovered in this screen were sfp1 and sch9 .
This observation, coupled with the fact that both the cell size threshold and the rate of ribosome biogenesis are dictated by environmental conditions, suggest the following cascade from environmental signals to G 1 to S phase transition START :. Potentially, downstream affects on translational output may contribute. The unstable G 1 cyclin Cln3, for example, requires a robust rate of translation to attain a critical abundance to drive cell-cycle progression .
Although it is not immediately apparent how ribosome biogenesis might play a role in this regulation, it is tempting to think that the phosphorylation of these proteins could be involved in coupling growth cues to the G 1 to S phase transition.
This group found that cells expressing a temperature-sensitive allele of kog1 and also cells treated with rapamycin have a mitotic delay due to a prolonged G 2 phase. It will of interest to see which yeast system will better model metazoan cell division. Perhaps a consequence of the altered G 1 to S phase transition described above, rapamycin treatment was found to alter the phosphorylation of a number of proteins involved in DNA replication. Narain 3 , in Polymers and Nanomaterials for Gene Therapy , In the prototype of gene therapy, monogenic diseases served as a simple pattern where the therapeutic gene was designed to induce the expression of a functioning gene to replace a defective mutant one [ 11 ].
The retina as a target organ with its defined anatomical confinement and its relative immune privileges make it suitable for application of viral vectors. Moreover, the initial results in Choroideremia, an X-linked recessive disorder of the retina and choroid that leads to blindness due to mutations in the CHM gene resulting in the loss of function of the Rab escort protein -1 REP1 , were recently reported and were consistent with improved rod and cone function after receiving retinal gene therapy with an AAV vector encoding REP1 AAV REP1 [ 13 ].
Two studies delivering a vascular endothelial growth factor VEGF antagonist in gene therapy, using both AAV vectors and the Flt-1 gene in different forms and administration sites, are ongoing [ 15 ]. AMD is being studied by delivering two angiostatic proteins endostatin and angiostatin by using an equine infectious anemia virus EIAV -based lentiviral gene therapy vector [ 16 ].
The use of the EIAV virus is necessitated by the fact that the genes to be delivered exceed the 4. Retinal dystrophies are now the subject of translational research after identification of more than mutated genes involved in its pathology [ 18 ].
Targeted NGS next-generation sequencing based methods for molecular diagnosis along with vertebrate animal models offer the opportunity to study a number of rational therapies in cone dystrophy, cone rod dystrophy, LCA, macular dystrophy, and retinitis pigmentosa [ 18 ].
Recently discovered novel over 90 different disease-causing mutations in PRPH2 gene that encodes peripherin a membrane glycoprotein important for the stabilization and compaction of photoreceptor in outer segment discs may explain disease combinations [ 19 ] and pathogenesis.
Newer non-viral delivery systems such as nanoparticles cationic lipids and polymers forming lipoplexes and polyplexes are also widely studied and could potentially overcome issues of oncogenicty, immunogenicity, gene size, and transduction and are less invasive [ 23—32 ].
Hemophilia A and B are X-linked recessive monogenic disorders resulting from deficiencies of factor VIII and FIX, respectively, where administration of purified clotting factor concentrates is currently the only non-curative treatment option. Most preclinical studies of hemophilia A gene therapy have focused on the use of viral vectors, such as adenovirus, adeno-associated virus AAV , gamma retrovirus, and lentivirus but the large size of human Factor VIII gene and immunological reactions to viral vectors remain significant obstacles [ 35 ].
Recently, non-viral gene transfer technology using transposon vectors has shown promising results [ 35 ]. Only a minute increase in circulating FIX levels is needed for a marked clinical response, since the size of the FIX gene is small and is easy to insert in viral vectors.
AAV vectors transfecting liver cells have shown promise in humans in hemophilia B [ 36 , 37 ] but a lot more remains to be done in the future. Issues with immune-mediated toxicity are of concern as AAV clearly stimulate strong innate and subsequent adaptive immune responses, which can lead to both toxicity and loss of expression [ 36 ].
Recently, in 10 patients with severe hemophilia B, the infusion of a single dose of AAV8 vector resulted in long-term therapeutic factor IX expression associated with clinical improvement, without any late toxic effects reported in a follow-up period of up to 3 years [ 37 ]. Efficient and permanent transfer of the CFTR gene is needed in respiratory epithelium that has evolutionally developed efficient ways of fighting foreign body invasions. For newer developments in CF see the Gene Editing section.
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation HSCT using stem cell sources from the bone marrow, peripheral blood, or umbilical cord blood has been the mainstay of treatment in PID, but immunological complications such as graft vs. Future directions include combination approaches using gene editing and ex vivo transfection of patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells iPSC technology [ 43 ]..
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S classifieds dependent escortThat has been a historical trend in the past. Erdogan declared winner of Turkey presidential polls. FHL1 binding to RP promoters appears to be constitutive and in some cases is
s classifieds dependent escortby HMO1, a high-mobility group protein and RAP1, an essential protein with pleiotropic functions . In many trafficking escort nearby nsa definition, Rab and Arf GTPases cooperate in recruiting effectors, and constraints imposed by their membrane localization influences the nature of these regulatory interactions. This group found that cells expressing a temperature-sensitive allele of kog1 and also cells treated with rapamycin have a mitotic delay due to a prolonged G 2 phase. This observation, coupled with the fact that both the cell size threshold and the rate of ribosome biogenesis are dictated by environmental conditions, suggest the following cascade from environmental signals to G 1 to S phase transition START :